Photographer Ted Kawalerski made the transition from still to motion and has never looked back. Ted takes you through the steps to get started in a medium that will open your photography business to...
Bronica's RF645 system consists of a rangefinder camera body, a 65mm f/4
normal lens, and a 45mm f/4 wide-angle lens (equivalent to a 28mm perspective on
a 35mm camera). The camera creates 16 6x4.5 cm images on a roll of 120 film or 32
pictures from a roll of 220. This Bronica system has a 100 percent electronic
interface between camera and lens. The camera controls are large traditional
individual knobs and switches but underneath is a high degree of electronic
Like the old Fuji 645 cameras, this Bronica pulls the film from left to right
and therefore creates vertical images when held horizontally. You have to rotate
the camera in order to create a horizontal photo.
No rangefinder camera is capable of handling the full range of photographic
challenges. For example, rangefinders don't work very well for telephoto or macro
photography. Consequently, it is likely that a rangefinder camera system will sit
in the bag for several weeks between projects and therefore it is important that,
once picked up again, the camera is easy to use.
The Bronica RF645 borrowed for this review came without an instruction manual,
which provided a good test of usability. Within five minutes, I was able to (1)
set the camera to accept 220 film, (2) load the RF645 body, (3) mount a 65mm
lens, (4) set film ISO, (5) try out metered-manual, aperture-priority
autoexposure, and program-autoexposure, (6) use exposure compensation. More or
less every control on the camera is self-explanatory with the possible exception
of the "ME" button (multiple exposure?).
Exposure control is particularly straightforward. Aperture is set with a ring
on the lens. Shutter speeds from B-500 are set on a top-deck dial. If you set the
top deck to "A" the camera picks a shutter speed appropriate to the aperture set
on the lens ring. If you set the top deck to "P" the camera picks both aperture
and shutter speed, ignoring the lens ring. There is no exposure mode button or
wheel; the mode is implicit from the shutter speed setting. Nor, when the camera
body is determining the aperture, must you set the lens ring to a particular
position. Compare this to the Nikon AF SLR system, where the camera flashes "fEE"
at you if you've set the (separate) exposure mode control to "P" but neglected to
turn the lens aperture ring to the minimum aperture.
Watch out in available light situations. My Bronica underexposed in dimly lit
interiors. According to the Bronica Web site, the camera meter is supposed to be
good down to EV 3 (ISO 100), which is f/2.8 and 1 second. But I found that the
meter underexposed in interiors that were lit about 2 f-stops more brightly. In
low light, check the camera's recommendation against a handheld meter.
Controls are large and easy to operate while wearing gloves. Control settings
are confirmed with positive clicks into position.
The lens caps and hoods interact in a pernicious fashion. The plastic hoods
are cleverly molded for compactness but they end up so tight that you can't
remove the lens cap without first removing the bayonet-mount hood. Should you
forget to remove the lens cap, you won't find out until you get your film back
from the lab. The camera determines exposure with an on-body sensor. The flash
determines exposure with an on-flash sensor. All of the readouts and autoexposure
modes will function the same with the lens cap on or off.
The camera body's viewfinder contains frame lines to show you the image likely
to be captured by the 65mm lens. These are parallax-compensated, i.e., they move
as the lens is focussed closer. Presumably these frame lines would pull in if a
telephoto lens were mounted but this is tough to test in the United States, where
Tamron USA has decided not to import the 135/4.5 telephoto lens (too tough to get
accurate focus with the rangefinder; see the moaning and whining of Mamiya 7
users of the 150mm lens for what happens when you combine a long lens with a
short-base rangefinder; if you really want a 135, note that some large New York
dealers may bring them in grey market, try
Adorama, for example). The frame lines
disappear if you mount the 45mm lens, reminding you to check framing in the
supplementary shoe-mounted viewfinder supplied with that lens.
The rangefinder overlap area within the viewfinder is reasonably large,
extremely bright, and easy to use. This is one of the better rangefinders
available, comparable in quality to that of a Leica M6, which I happened to have
available for direct comparison.
In autoexposure modes, aperture and shutter speed are displayed in the upper
left-hand corner of the viewfinder. If you're in metered-manual mode, only the
shutter speed appears, along with an indication underneath of how far away you
are from the camera's suggested exposure. This is a numeric rather than an
graphical display. For example, if you're overexposing by 1 and 1/2 f-stops, a
"+1.5" will appear underneath the shutter speed. Personally I find this hard to
live with. The 35mm SLRs get it right: an in-camera display of aperture
and shutter speed plus a bar-graph showing how far away from
the recommended exposure.
As with most rangefinder cameras, eye-relief is barely adequate without
eyeglasses. You can see the 65mm frame lines in one glance but will have to
rotate the camera a bit or adjust your gaze to read the in-finder display. With
eyeglasses it is a bit of a struggle to position one's eyes correctly.
Because of the unusual vertical orientation of the camera, Bronica supplies
its own RF20 flash. This is small enough to fit in a shirt pocket but reasonably
powerful (GN 20 in meters for ISO 100; GN 16 when set to cover the 45mm lens). In
auto flash exposure mode, the angled LCD display on the flash shows
film ISO setting
range of acceptable distances
flash exposure compensation applied
Want to adjust flash exposure or fill-ratio? There are dedicated "+" and "-"
buttons right on top of the flash. If you switch to manual flash exposure mode,
the LCD display shows film ISO, flash guide-number, aperture set, and highlights
the optimum distance for a correctly exposed subject. This is one of the nicest
user interfaces that I've seen on any flash.
(Note: If you want a higher-power flash whose tube can be oriented vertically,
look at an old used Nikon SB-15.)
For use with studio flashes, the RF645 body contains an X-sync PC terminal
ideally positioned at the bottom left of the lens mount. No matter whether the
camera is held for a vertical or horizontal photo, the PC cord should be out of
the way of the lens. This is an important consideration on a rangefinder camera
since you aren't viewing through the lens.
To take a wide-angle photo, follow these steps:
focus through the RF645 body's viewfinder, using the body's rangefinder
check exposure information in the RF645 body's viewfinder
frame the picture in the shoe-mounted viewfinder that came with the 45mm
press the shutter release
The need to use two viewfinders will slow you down considerably.
The RF20 flash can be set to cover the 75.5 degree angle of view.
The 65 and 45 lenses focus only to about 1 meter (3.3 feet). If you're
accustomed to similar lenses on 35mm cameras, which focus down to 30 cm (1 foot),
you'll be in for a rude surprise. At its closest focusing distance, for example,
the 65mm lens captures an adult from the waist up. You won't be making any
head-and-shoulder portraits with this camera.
Miscellaneous Thoughtful Features
The electromagnetic soft shutter release is centrally threaded to accept a
standard mechanical cable release. The camera includes a self-timer for steady
tripod exposures without a cable release.
The camera runs on two CR2 3V lithium batteries. Given that these are only
operating the metering system, shutter, and diaphragm, these should last for
hundreds of rolls of film.
Most 645 cameras are bulky single-lens reflexes, which are great for macro and
telephoto work but not serious competition for the Bronica RF645 when it comes to
weight and pocketability. Also, any medium format camera will have a prodigious
amount of mirror slap from the prodigiously sized mirror and therefore a
rangefinder can be successfully handheld at slower shutter speeds than an SLR.
Thus we cannot consider any of the SLR 645s as competitors to the Bronica
Among 645 rangefinder camera manufacturers, Fuji has the longest modern
tradition. The Fuji cameras do not have interchangeable lenses, however. If you
want a normal perspective, you start with the original folder with its 75mm lens.
Want something a bit wider? Add a Fuji 645S with its 60mm lens to your shoulder.
Want something wider still? Maybe get one of those double camera straps and clip
in the 645W with its 45mm lens and guestimation focusing system (no rangefinder).
None of these are manufactured anymore but they can easily be found used, produce
high quality images, and are very reliable. How does the Bronica with the 65mm
lens mounted compare to the old Fuji 645S? The Bronica has a much better
rangefinder. The Bronica offers automatic exposure. The Bronica has a more modern
and easier to use flash system.
What about the latest Fuji 645 cameras? We haven't tested them yet for
photo.net but I've played with them in the Shinjuku Yodobashi shop. The new Fujis
look like huge 35mm point-and-shoot cameras and they work like 35mm P&S
cameras too: autofocus, automated setting of film speed (from bar codes in Fuji
120 film), semi-automated film loading, motorized film advance, built-in flash,
as few buttons as possible. One version even has short-range zoom lens. The
Bronica RF645 offers more direct controls, silent operation, and a classic look.
If you're looking for something to hand down to your grandchildren, the Bronica
wins. In day-to-day usage, the Fuji point-and-shoots might win in situations when
you don't have time or energy to think about photography.
If you like the perspective of a normal lens, the Bronica RF645 is a great
camera. It is unobtrusive, lightweight, easy to use, sensibly engineered, and
produces images of outstanding quality. As a wide-angle camera it becomes