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Macro Lens Review: Tamron SP 90MM F/2.8 Di VC USD 1:1

Tamron's SP 90mm f2.8 Di VC Macro sees Tamron building on its earlier version of the 90mm (with the same name,) to make a macro lens that is more in step with its competition (Nikon AF-S VR...

Timeline History

of Israel by Philip Greenspun, 2000

  • 10,000 BC: first permanent settlements in Israel
  • 7,000 BC: walls of Jericho built
  • 1486 BC: Canaanite army defeated at Megiddo by Egyptian pharoah Thutmose, consolidating Egyptian rule over Canaan
  • 1300 BC: Moses leads the Jews out of Egypt
  • circa 1200 BC: Philistines arrive by ship and give the name "Palestine" to the area; Jews start to arrive in Land of Israel
  • 990 BC: Jerusalem captured by King David and Israel unified as one nation
  • 950 BC: First Temple built by King Solomon
  • 928 BC: After a fight over taxation, Israel splits into two nations: "Judah" in the south and "Israel" in the north
  • 597 BC: Babylonians send army to put down a rebellion and take prominent Jews into exile
  • 586 BC: Babylonians arrive to put down another rebellion, destroy the First Temple, and remove more Jews into exile
  • 539 BC: Babylonians defeated by Persians
  • 538 BC: Cyrus the Great of Persia allows the Jews to return to Israel and rebuild temple in return for loyalty oath to Persia
  • 515 BC: Second Temple built
  • 332 BC: Alexander the Great of Macedonia conquers Persia and takes over their empire, including Palestine; Hellenization of Israel begins
  • 170-164 BC: Maccabee revolt against forced Hellenization; Jewish independence
  • 63 BC: Roman legions, under General Pompey, conquer Jerusalem
  • 37 BC: Herod the Great installed by Romans as vassal king
  • 4 BC: Jesus born
  • circa AD 30: Jesus crucified by Romans
  • AD 66-70: Jewish revolt, war with Romans, destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple
  • AD 73: Masada falls
  • AD 130-2: Hadrian outlaws circumcision and plans to rebuild Jerusalem as a pagan city
  • AD 132-135. Bar Kochba rebellion. Jews crushed by Romans, sold into slavery, and driven into exile (the Diaspora). Jerusalem is rebuilt as Aelia Capitolina.
  • AD 200-215: Mishnah edited in Israel by Rabbi Ha Nasi
  • AD 313: Roman emperor Constantine converts to Christianity, grants freedom of worship to Christians throughout Empire
  • AD 395: Rome splits into western and eastern (Byzantium) empires
  • AD 638: Omar defeats the Byzantine army at the Yarmuk River (in Syria); Muslims rule Palestine
  • AD 1009: Caliph El-Hakim destroys Holy Sepulchre
  • AD 1071: Seljuk Turks forbid Christians to enter Jerusalem
  • AD 1095: Pope Urban II launches Crusades
  • AD 1099: Crusaders take Jerusalem after a five-week siege; more than 20,000 Jews and Muslims inside are murdered or sold into slavery
  • AD 1144: Jews in Norwich, England accused of torturing and killing a Christian boy to use his blood in a ritual. This was the first of the "blood libels" that led to mob violence against Jews throughout Europe.
  • AD 1187: Saladin retakes Jerusalem
  • AD 1188-92: Third Crusade under Richard I the Lionheart fails to retake Jerusalem but wins access for pilgrims.
  • AD 1400: Israel under Mameluke rule from Egypt; Jews begin emigrating to Palestine to escape persecution in Europe
  • AD 1492: Jews expelled from Spain
  • AD 1516: Mamelukes defeated by Ottoman empire
  • AD 1537: Suleyman the Magnificent orders new walls and gates built around Jerusalem
  • AD 1839: Sir Moses Montefiore, a British jew, calls for creation of a Jewish state
  • AD 1896: Theodor Herzl publishes Der Judenstat, which leads to formation of the World Zionist Congress
  • 1903: Herzl presents a plan to create a Jewish homeland in Uganda to the Sixth Zionist Congress
  • 1917: British General Allenby captures Jerusalem from the Turks. Balfour declaration issued: "His Majesty's government favourable views the creation of a national Jewish home in Palestine."
  • 1923: British split off 70% of Palestine and hand it over to Emir Abdullah as "Jordan"
  • 1929: Arab pogroms against Jews in Jerusalem, Hebron, and Safed
  • 1934: Stalin creates Jewish Autonomous Region in the eastern Siberian region of Birobidzhan, a frigid alternative to Zionism
  • 1937: British propose ending their Mandate and partioning the remainder of Palestine (the 30% left after the splitting off of Jordan) into separate Jewish and Arab states. The partition is accepted by the Jews but rejected by the Arabas.
  • 1939: In an attempt to win Arab support for the impending war with Germany, British issue "White Paper" cutting off Jewish immigration to Palestine.
  • 1944: under pressure from the British, the United States accepts 982 Jewish refugees from liberated Italy and inters them in a concentration camp in Oswego, New York for eventual deportation back to Europe; these are the only Jews allowed into the U.S. during World War II ( more);
  • 1945: U.S. President Roosevelt promises King Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia that he will not support a Jewish state in Palestine ( more)
  • November 29, 1947: United Nations votes for the partition of the remainder of Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states, with Jerusalem a neutral international city. The United States embargoes arms sales to the Jews while the British sell arms freely to the Arabs; with support from Stalin, the Jews are ultimately able to purchase $12 million of rifles from Czechoslovakia.
  • May 14, 1948: State of Israel declared. British withdraw. New state attacked simultaneously by Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Egypt. Palestinian Arabs were encouraged by the invading armies to vacate their homes to facilitate a quick war and complete victory.
  • July 1949: The fighting is over but the Israelis refuse to let the Palestinian Arabs who fled to return to their homes. Meanwhile, Jews living in Arab countries jump or are pushed into emigrating to Israel. There are more than 500,000 refugees on each side of the conflict. The Arabs leave the Palestinians in makeshift tent camps. The Israelis begin to build cheap ugly concrete apartment blocks for all the Jews from Arab countries.
  • 1956: Egyptian Colonel Nasser seizes Suez Canal from Anglo-French stockholders. The Canal and Straits of Tiran are closed to Israeli or Israel-bound ships. This prompts an invasion of the Sinai by French, British, and Israeli forces. The armies are forced to retreat under pressure from the Soviet Union and United States. This underscores a humiliating loss of influence and power for the English.
  • 1967: Six Day War. Israel and the Arab countries have been in an The official state of war since 1948. However, the first five months of 1967 brought an intensification of hostilities with the Egyptians moving troops into the Sinai and closing the shippping lanes, the Syrians shelling farms in the north, and terrorist attacks coming through all the borders. On June 5, 1967 Israel launched a preemptive strike on all fronts. After six days, the Israelis had conquered the Sinai, the Golan Heights, the West Bank, and Jerusalem.
  • September 1970: Palestinians hijack four commercial airplanes, fly them to Jordan, and blow them up. This was the last straw for King Hussein, whose minority Hashemite rule had been threatened by the Palestinian Arab military force for some time. Hussein launches massive military campaign to expel all the armed Palestinians from Jordan. More than 5000 Palestinians are killed and this leads to the formation of the Black September terrorist group. Most of the best-armed Palestinians wind up in Lebanon, destabilizing the government there.
  • 1973: Yom Kippur War. The Arabs struck back, easily rolling over Israel's Maginot-style line in the Sinai. After three weeks or so, with heavy American support, the Israelis managed to cross the Suez into Egypt proper and were within 20 miles of Damascus before the US put a halt to the war.
  • November 1977: Anwar Sadat visits Menachem Begin in Jerusalem for peace negotiations.
  • September 1978: Camp David Accords.
  • March 1979: Israel and Egypt sign a peace treaty, ending more than 30 years of war.
  • June 7, 1981: Israel bombing raid destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor; the United Nations responds by "Urg[ing] all Member States to provide necessary technical assistance to Iraq to restore its peaceful nuclear programme" ( Resolution 40/6)
  • October 6, 1981: Anwar Sadat assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists.
  • 1982: Israel invades Lebanon and destroys PLO infrastructure there.
  • July 1994: Israel and Jordan sign a peace treaty, ending 46 years of war.
  • November 4, 1995: Pro-compromise Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin killed at a peace rally by a Jewish right-wing assassin.

Readers' Comments

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Meir Samel , July 25, 2009; 07:46 A.M.

excellent chronology shown

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